VAT & Landlords – the Option to Tax Property
For landlords, the letting of property is normally an exempt activity for VAT. A property investor making VAT exempt rentals has implications. No related input VAT can be recovered and, if the landlord has no other business activities, they can’t even register for VAT.
A property investor will have to bear the additional VAT cost of any refurbishment, repair work, accountancy or legal costs. That is unless they can pass any of these costs on to the tenant.
The Option to Tax
A property investor can “opt to tax” a commercial building.
Once opted, a property investor can recover VAT on any expenses that relate to the opted property.
An option can be in respect of a particular property, all an investor’s properties, all properties with certain exceptions, or all property in a geographical location. The option applies to the land on which a building sits and, if it is demolished, any subsequent property built on the site unless the owner specifically excludes the new building.
Option to Tax: two stage process
Making an option to tax is a two stage process:
- The property owner must take the decision to opt to tax the property.
- Then within 30 days they must notify HM Revenue & Customs of the decision.
HMRC recommends that the notification is made on their form VAT1614A. But a notification can be made in any format as long as the required information is provided.
There are certain situations where an option to tax has no effect or can be negated by the buyer:
- Where a building or part of a building is designed as a dwelling;
- Where a building or part of a building is used by a charity for its charitable activities;
- Where land is sold to an individual who intends to build a dwelling as a DIY builder;
- Where land is sold to a housing association to build dwellings; and
- Where a building is sold to a developer who intends to convert it to a dwelling.
Perhaps the most important and common of these is where the property is to be used as a dwelling. All residential letting income is exempt and no associated VAT can be recovered.
VAT on property is complex and advice should be sought before every transaction.
Need more information on Option to Tax?
VAT remains one of the least understood of all taxes, which is why we set up a specialist VAT advisory department. Our team can help guide businesses through the complex maze of VAT legislation.
You can also learn more about Land and Property VAT on our dedicated service page.